Scientific name: Pygoscelis antarctica
Physical description and related species
Chinstrap penguins — named for the narrow black band under their heads — weigh 3.5 to 5.5 kg. They are distinguished by the narrow band of black feathers which extends from ear to ear, just below the chin and the cheeks. Males and females look similar but males are larger and heavier than females.
The chinstrap penguin is closely related to two other penguins, the gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and the Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae).
Distribution and abundance
Chinstrap penguins breed mainly on the Antarctic Peninsula and on islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. There is a small breeding population on the Balleny Islands, south of New Zealand.
Chinstrap penguins are an abundant penguin species in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions.
Conservation status: least concern
Chinstraps spend the winter north of the pack ice zone and return to their colonies in early October through to November. The two eggs are laid in late November. Both males and females take part in the 33 to 36 day incubation period. Initially shifts last 5 to 10 days but as the hatching date comes closer the shifts get shorter. They generally nurture two chicks each summer. This is unlike other penguins species where the stronger chick is fed preferentially. The chicks fledge at about 7 to 8 weeks.
Breeding success is lower in years when extensive sea-ice persists close to colonies, as this restricts access to the sea for foraging adults.
Diet and feeding
Although chinstrap penguins forage at sea throughout the day and night, diving effort is concentrated near midnight and noon.
Chinstrap penguins feed mainly on krill and fish and are considered near-shore feeders, feeding close to their breeding colonies. They catch prey by pursuit-diving using their flippers to ‘fly’ through the water.
Chinstrap penguins on land often toboggan — laying on their stomachs, propelling themselves by their feet, and using their flippers. They climb using all four limbs and are able to jump large distances to reach footholds.
In March through to early May, these penguins leave their colonies and move north of the pack ice for the winter.
Leopard seals are the main predator at sea, while predators on land are sheathbills and skuas who take chicks and eggs.