In December 1947, Australia established its first station in the sub-Antarctic at Heard Island followed by Macquarie Island a few months later in March 1948.

Australia established its first permanent base on the Antarctic continent at Mawson in 1954. Mawson station is now the longest continuously operating station in Antarctica.

In 1957, Davis was established by Australia to conduct scientific activities during the International Geophysical Year (IGY).

Two years later, Australia took over the running of Wilkes, a station built for IGY by the United States. When Wilkes rapidly deteriorated from snow and ice accumulation, plans were made to build Casey station, known as Repstat. Opened in 1969, Repstat was replaced by present day Casey station in 1988.