Australian scientists were involved in the early days of Antarctic exploration. Their goal was to seek answers from the unknown wilderness.

One of Australia’s most famous Antarctic scientists is the geologist and explorer Douglas Mawson. Mawson led 2 Australian expeditions. He was supported by a team of biologists, geologists, meteorologists, physicists and cartographers.

Expeditions were made possible by the entrepreneurial spirit, drive and innovation of pioneers such as Frank Wild, Walter Hannam and John King Davis. The public's imagination was caught by images of majestic landscapes and daily expedition life, captured by photographer Frank Hurley and artist and biologist Charles Harrisson.

Australian expeditions were championed by advocates such as T.W. Edgeworth David, Lord Richard Casey, and Phillip Law.

In more recent times, Australian female scientists such as Isobel Bennett, Hope Black, Susan Ingham and Patricia Selkirk have further advanced Antarctica science, which was once the preserve of men only.