Young coastal ice

Young coastal ice is the initial stage of fast ice formation. It consists of nilas or young ice, its width varying from a few metres up to 100 to 200 m from the shoreline.

Anchor ice

Anchor ice is submerged ice attached or anchored to the bottom, irrespective of the nature of its formation.


An icefoot is a narrow fringe of ice attached to the coast, unmoved by tides and remaining after the fast ice has moved away.

Grounded ice

Grounded ice is floating ice which is aground in shoal water.

Stranded ice

Ice which has been floating and has been deposited on the shore by retreating high water.

Grounded hummock

Hummocked grounded ice formation. There are single grounded hummocks and lines (or chains) of grounded hummocks.

Ice shelves

Ice shelves are areas of large continentally based ice sheets which have flowed to the coast, where they then float in the ocean.