The Biosecurity Act 2015 (Biosecurity Act) commenced on 15 June 2016, replacing the previous Quarantine Act 1908. The Biosecurity Act, administered by the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, requires all biological specimens, soil samples, ice samples and water samples returned to Australia from the Antarctic, the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and waters outside the Australian territory (as defined by the Biosecurity Act) to be covered by a Permit to Import Quarantine Material. Permits are required before samples are returned to Australia. Proponents are also advised to check with other countries if further approvals are required when transporting samples internationally.

Weapons ordinances govern the possession and use of weapons in the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) and the Territory of Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (HIMI). The scheme implemented by the ordinance is to prohibit the possession and use of all automatic and semi-automatic weapons in the AAT and HIMI but to allow the possession and use of both historic and non-historic weapons subject to certain conditions.

Apart from members of the defence forces and certain other persons (as outlined in the legislation), anyone wishing to take a non-automatic weapon (there is a blanket ban on automatic weapons) into the AAT or HIMI must apply to the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) for a permit.

Copies of all relevant legislation can be found via the Federal Register of Legislation.