Antarctic marine research aquarium

We maintain a marine research aquarium to study Antarctic marine organisms. Much of this research is on the physiology, behaviour and reproduction of krill. Most years we collect live Antarctic krill from the research vessel Aurora Australis. Once aboard the animals are kept alive in tanks of chilled sea water until the ship returns to Hobart. They are then put in to buckets of chilled sea water which are packed in ice and moved to the aquarium at our headquarters in Kingston, Tasmania.

Unlike a usual low temperature research facility that cools the whole laboratory to control the water temperature of the tanks, the aquarium is a recirculating sea water system in which the water is chilled directly.

  • The air is kept at about 18°C and scientists can do their experiments without wearing freezer suits.
  • Heat exchangers maintain the water in the tanks typically at 0.5°C although temperatures as low as -1°C can be reached.
  • The water is recirculated continually at up to 1.5 litres per second. It passes through a group of filtering units with the whole system volume of the main holding tanks (approximately 8000 litres) being filtered every 90 minutes.

Most of the krill are kept in this system and are fed different types of live and dead phytoplankton and microencapsulated vitamins and minerals. The tanks get a typical Antarctic photoperiod (number of hours of daylight) to copy the lighting conditions that they would receive in the Southern ocean.

Large tubes of green and orange liquid that fill refrigerators.
120 litre Antarctic phytoplankton cultures for use as krill food.
Photo: Antarctic Division
The many tanks and pipes of the aquarium filtration system.
Antarctic marine research aquarium filtration system.
Photo: Antarctic Division
Dark water filled tanks with equipment on the side.
Experimental tanks for examining the effects of temperature on growth and maturation of krill.
Photo: Antarctic Division

In addition to the 8000 litre system which holds the bulk of the laboratory krill population, there is a separate experimental system of approximately 24,000 litres. This can be used to change water chemistry, temperature and lighting for a wide array of experiments. Some experiments involve short term measurements and observations while others are longer term studies that may require rearing krill through several years.

All of the research seeks to further enhance our knowledge of Antarctic krill in order to provide a greater understanding of how they contribute to the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Research performed in the aquarium is published in international peer reviewed scientific journals and as documents for the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

The outside fo the building where the krill aquarium is contained.
Antarctic marine research aquarium at the Australian Antarctic Division headquarters in Kingston, Tasmania.
Photo: Antarctic Division
Two large tanks full of water under artificial lighting.
Tanks for holding krill.
Photo: Antarctic Division

Scanning electron micrographs of cultured phytoplankton for feeding to the krill

Gemingera cryophila

Geminigera cryophila

Photo: Electron Microscopy Unit, Antarctic Division
Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Photo: Electron Microscopy Unit, Antarctic Division
Pyramimonas gelidicola

Pyramimonas gelidicola

Photo: Electron Microscopy Unit, Antarctic Division
This page was last modified on 22 October 2008.