This week at Davis: 3 March 2017

This week we finished our summer science programs, winterised Woop Woop and said goodbye to fellow expeditioners heading home on the Aurora Australis.

Icy science: Hacking the social networks of Anatarctic microbes

When most people imagine Antarctica, the final frontier of Earth exploration, their minds turn to the cold, icy landscape and the charismatic megafauna, the whales, seals, penguins and possibly even the small but important krill. However, what is often overlooked are the invisible powerhouses that inhabit the oceans; the microscopic algae and bacteria that fuel the marine food webs, drive the crucially important nutrient cycles and even influence our climate.

Several millions of these organisms are present in every drop of seawater, and if their total mass was summed up they would weigh more than all the fishes and mammals in the ocean. The story of these littlest of critters are still largely unexplored and therefore many questions still exists on how these charismatic micro–organisms flourish, live and die. Enter 'Team Microphyte'!

This is a short story of four intrepid researchers, Drs Katherina, Daniel, JB and PhD student Eva from the University of Technology Sydney, heading south to unravel some of the mysterious interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria in Antarctic seas.

The Antarctic marine ecosystem is a vital ‘hot spot’ of productivity and biodiversity that is entirely founded on the growth of microscopic algae – phytoplankton – which like plants, harvest energy from the sun to grow.

Many Antarctic phytoplankton also produce an important sulphur molecule that is consumed by marine bacteria, who can then convert it into a gas that can participate in cloud formation, linking ocean chemistry to global climate. We came to Antarctica to investigate the role of these sulphur compounds in modulating phytoplankton–bacteria associations and explore how changes in environmental condition, such as those expected from global warming, influence these fundamental relationships in the Antarctic ocean. These processes are important to understand, because marine microbes perform invaluable ecosystem services, and any shift in their interactions and collective function will profoundly affect ocean productivity (i.e. fisheries yields) and chemical cycling.

Although we have already arrived at the end of our research expedition, there’s a lot we can share about our adventure so far. Our journey started with a spectacularly comfortable flight to Casey on the Airbus A319, complete with a ‘smooth as silk’ landing at Wilkin’s. We then took the Hercules across the continent to Whoop Whoop, followed by a short yet sweet helicopter ride off the Plateau, gently landing us at Davis in time for lunch.

Once we’d landed, there was no ‘Slushying’ around. We were whisked off for our inductions and were ready to start our water sampling within three days. In total, we collected more than 500 litres of seawater while manoeuvring the continuously shifting and beautiful icebergs. Some water was collected during delightful weather and calm seas, and some collection days were a more rocky, less agreeable affair. A major highlight from our time at Davis was one of our sampling trips out along the Sørsdal glacier. The sun was shining, the ice twinkling and penguins out for ice-float joy rides.

What did we do with all of this water you may ask? Well, there were a number of experiments set up in our walk–in cold room (because Antarctica phytoplankton can’t take the heat!). We incubated these natural communities of micro–organisms with tracers to quantify their contribution to the cycling of climate–active sulphur molecules. We ran assays to determine if bacteria could be attracted by the 'smell' of these sulphur molecules, which would have important consequences in terms of sulphur cycling in the ocean, and we spent many hours filtering the water to capture the phytoplankton and bacteria for further analysis back home.

Our journey has been an excellent one, both in terms of research and adventure. Our return home will be aboard the RSV Aurora Australis. We can only hope that the trip home will be as smooth sailing as our time here. We are going home bearing smiles, with our arms loaded with boxes and bags of exciting samples, stunning photos and great memories. The team is extremely grateful to all at Davis station who supported our research and made it a successful season for marine science.

Katherina (Plant Physiologist)
three people dressed in their yellow outer shells with ski googles. They are standing on the Wilkin's skiway with the Hercules in the background.
The team at Wilkin’s skiway about to board the Hercules.
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)
Five people are seen on the deck of the Howard Burton workboat. It is offshore of Davis. There is an island in the background.
On the Howard Burton, for one of our rockier and more overcast…
(Photo: Katherina Petrou)
two people are collecting water samples from the boat. In the background is the Sorsdal Glacier.
Collecting water samples near the Sørsdal Glacier.
(Photo: Katherina Petrou)
Some Adélie penguins are standing on a small piece of sea-ice (a bergy bit), resting. In the background are the ice cliffs of the Sørsdal Glacier.
Watching some Adélie penguins float by as we make our way to…
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)
A photo of a phytoplankton taken under a microscope. It is round in shape.
Microscopy image of beautiful phytoplankton (Asteromphalus sp.) found in the waters off…
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)
Another phytoplankton picture taken from under a microscope. This one is rectangular with long tendrils coming off it.
Microscopy image of phytoplankton (Chaetoceros sp.) found in the waters off Davis…
(Photo: Katherina Petrou)
Inside a cold room with many glass cylinders full of seawater and plankton, involved in experiments.
Cold room with phytoplankton incubation experiments.
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)
Katherina is in the lab working with seawater and filters in preparation of experimental work.
Filtering seawater samples for phytoplankton and bacteria.
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)
Three people are standing in front of Davis station, with big smiles and their hands in the air. Celebrating their successful season.
The team (left to right) JB, Eva, Katherina and Daniel, celebrating our…
(Photo: Daniel Aagren Nielsen)

Winterising Woop Woop

With the last fixed wing aircraft having left to return home and the end of summer upon us, it was time to pack up and 'winterise' the skiway at Woop Woop. We needed to do this before the ship arrived because it will be months before we are able to return there. This is due to it being in a remote area on the Antarctic Plateau and there is no air support once the ship leaves. We need to wait for the sea ice to re–freeze to a suitable thickness before we are able to drive on it and retrieve the equipment for repairs and servicing.

The actual pack up of Woop Woop involves several trades, but for us mechanics, it involves taping up all the doors and vents on the machines to prevent snow getting in, removing the batteries and the groomer blades above the ground and facing them away from the prevailing winds so as to protect the windscreens from blowing ice.

Some of the other work performed was checking all the gas bottles and isolating them, ensuring the electrical equipment was safe for use next season, removing the batteries from the communications and Bureau of Meteorology equipment and also checking the solar panels and removing the wind turbines so they are not blown away in strong winds over the winter!

Marc (Mechanic)

View from the helicopter looking over snow covered hills.
The flight up to Woop Woop.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
Aerial view of Deep Lake, looking dark and beautiful amongst the snow covered hills.
Flying over the hypersaline Deep Lake.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
The Hägg vehicle has tape along any openings to prevent blizz from entering the vehicle.
Taped up Hägg ready for winter.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
Jock is pushing against Marc's back as Marc tapes the doors shut. Without this support Marc would fall off the vehicle tracks.
Jock helping Marc to balance while taping the doors shut.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
The Hägg's doors and all other openings have been taped shut for winter.
Winterised
(Photo: Marc Mills)
Jock removing batteries from the snow grooming machine.
Jock removing batteries from the snow groomer.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
Jock removing more batteries from the groomer.
Jock removing more batteries.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
View of the groomer which has now had all its openings taped shut for winter.
All taped up.
(Photo: Marc Mills)

Ship sails for Hobart

The third voyage for the season (V3) has been quite eventful but everything worked out very efficiently in the end. The ship arrived at Davis and we successfully embarked 16 passengers and all RTA cargo. Then it did a dash for Mawson to deliver some priority cargo, but promptly returned three and a half days later, telling stories of jade icebergs and the like.

In the meantime we had been able to winterise Woop Woop, our skiway up on the Antarctic Plateau, so that the machinery and buildings were protected from damage over winter. We also got to clean the station a bit, have even more farewell celebrations and a nice and gentle departure on the Monday for the remaining 39 expeditioners joining the ship.

People were transferred to the ship by IRB (inflatable rubber boats or Zodiacs) and once at the ship there was a ladder to climb into the bunker door – not your average entry onto a vessel!  Those in the logistics team who needed to stay until the very end were lucky enough to get flown onto the ship by helicopter. Oh yes, and the helicopters are also leaving us now, off to work at Macquarie Island on V4.

While it was sad to see fellow expeditioners leave after a great summer, it is also an exciting time as we move into the next season with our smaller wintering group. We wish our friends a safe journey home, smooth seas and look forward to seeing many of them again in about nine months on V1.

Expeditioners are standing around by the wharf in life jackets, waiting for the boat to arrive to take them to the ship.
Waiting for the boat to arrive to take expeditioners out to the…
(Photo: Barry Becker)
Kerryn and Sue are standing chatting. Other expeditioners are seen in the background. Everyone is waiting for the boat to arrive.
Kerryn and Sue waiting for the boat.
(Photo: Barry Becker)
Ray, Matt, Anna and Phoebe are in the zodiac with two crew. They are just leaving the boat ramp and about to head out to the ship which is on the horizon.
Ray, Matt, Anna and Phoebe depart for the ship.
(Photo: Barry Becker)
Alison, Will, Simon and Amanda are in a zodiac boat with two crew. They are just pushing off from the boat ramp, about to head off to the ship.
Alison, Will, Simon and Amanda head out for the ship.
(Photo: Barry Becker)
The drill rig is mid air, being lifted by a large crane and about to be put onto a barge and transported to the ship.
The drill rig being lifted onto the barge for transfer to the…
(Photo: Barry Becker)
The Aurora Australis is sitting near icebergs off Davis. The openings in the hull look a bit icy. The ship has just arrived from Mawson.
The Aurora Australis upon its return from Mawson for the final expeditioners…
(Photo: Marc Mills)
The helicopter is slinging a cage pallet of cargo onto the back deck of the ship.
Sling loading baggage onto the ship.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
Four people are sitting in the helicopter with orange immersion suits on, about to fly out to the ship.
The second last helicopter with Toby, Matt, Euan and Lance onboard.
(Photo: Marc Mills)
The final helicopter flight of the season. It has just taken off from the Davis helipad and is heading for the ship.
The last helicopter with Dave, Mick, Sharon and Rachel. The last people…
(Photo: Marc Mills)
The Aurora is seen sailing past icebergs, heading north, leaving us for the winter and returning expeditioners to Hobart.
We talked with the ship by radio and released some rocket flares…
(Photo: Marc Mills)