This week at Casey: 26 July 2019

Talking about weather balloons and getting to know another of Casey's 29 Expeditioners

Up in the air we go....

Every twelve hours, hundreds of weather balloons all around the world are released at the same time as a part of the World Meteorological Organisation’s (WMO’s) Upper Air Program. The coordinated release of the weather balloons allows for a meteorological snapshot of the atmosphere to be taken globally. The information obtained from the weather balloons contributes to the climate record and is also ingested into computer models, which are interpreted by meteorologists who then forecast the weather from them.

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology participates in the WMO’s Upper Air Program by releasing weather balloons from 38 locations on continental Australia, some of our islands (Cocos, Willis, Norfolk and Lord Howe) and in Antarctica (at Casey, Davis, Mawson and Macquarie Island).

Here at Casey one of the Met Team members (Craig, Samuel or Tanya) release a weather balloon at 23:15Z and 11:15Z everyday of the year. Because weather balloon releases are an international effort, release times are based on one time zone, Zulu. For us here at Casey, this means 7:15am and 7:15pm in the winter and when we change time zones in the summer, 10:15am and 10:15pm.

So how do we get information about the atmosphere from a rubber balloon? Well, we don’t. We get the information from a radiosonde, which is suspended underneath the rubber balloon. The rubber balloon is simply a launch vehicle to take the radiosonde to the edge of space.

A radiosonde is a small electronic device that records temperature and humidity. It also has a GPS tracker so it’s position in three dimensions is always known at any given point in time. These three pieces of information are transmitted back to a receiver at Casey every second, where a computer processes the temperature and humidity data and also calculates the pressure, wind speed and wind direction.

The launch routine begins in the Meteorology Office at T minus thirty minutes when the radiosonde is removed from it’s packaging and placed in a special “Ground Check Set” which tests it’s performance. When it passes it is taken to the Balloon Building where a natural rubber latex balloon is tied to a gas nozzle and filled with hydrogen. Hydrogen is used instead of helium because it is cheap and easy to make which we do here on station using reverse fuel cell technology instead of passing an electric current through water. The balloon is filled with a specific volume of hydrogen so when it is released it ascends up through the atmosphere at 300 meters per minute. When the balloon is filled with the correct volume of hydrogen the radiosonde is tied to it, the giant balloon shed doors are opened, the balloon and radiosonde are walked outside and released.

That all sounds simple and straight forward but during a blizzard things become challenging. The balloon shed doors face downwind of the predominant strong wind direction and as the air flows over the building a horizontal spinning column of air (an eddy) forms against the downwind wall, which is where the giant balloon shed doors are. This eddy tries to blow the balloon back into the building when you walk it outside to release it. So the trick during a blizzard is to walk the balloon (which is being pulled horizontally backwards over your shoulder) about twenty meters past the eddy until it lunges over your shoulder and is then being pulled horizontally forwards, before letting go. Then you hope the balloon can quickly ascend up through the downdraft flowing over the balloon building and eddy before the radiosonde hits the ground.

You certainly earn your money for the day when you do that at night in winds greater than 100km/hr with visibility reduced down to twenty meters in heavy blowing snow…but it’s fun!

So, how high do the balloons go I hear you ask? It varies with the seasons and whether the balloon has been treated by soaking it Aviation Turbine Kerosene or not, but generally somewhere between 25km and 30km. As the balloon ascends up through the atmosphere the pressure decreases and the balloon slowly expands. Eventually it expands so much it bursts and falls back to earth. 

Even dressed in a green smock and head cover and goggles with an inflated weather balloon
Evan in the Balloon Shed with a Weather Balloon and Radiosonde ready…
(Photo: Tanya Maddison)
Evan walking the Weather Balloon and radiosonde outside through the giant Balloon Shed doors
Evan walking the Weather Balloon and Radiosonde outside through the giant Balloon…
(Photo: Tanya Maddison)
Craig holding a Weather Balloon and Radiosonde just before release standing in the snow and with rocks in the background
Craig holding a Weather Balloon and Radiosonde just before release
(Photo: Craig Butsch)
There goes the Weather Balloon and Radiosonde to the edge of space after being released into a cloudy sky
There goes the Weather Balloon and Radiosonde to the edge of space
(Photo: Tanya Maddison)
The RS41 Radiosonde sitting inside. The temperature and humidity sensors are on the left. The transmission aerial is on the right
The RS41 Radiosonde. The temperature and humidity sensors are on the left.…
(Photo: Tanya Maddison)
The Radiosonde data is displayed as graphs with altitude represented by several coloured lines
The Radiosonde data is displayed as graphs with altitude
(Photo: Tanya Maddison)

Getting to know a Casey Expeditioner - Matty Ryan

Name: Matty Ryan

Nicknames: Major

From: No fixed address

Previous seasons? My first trip to Antarctica was in 2006. Since then I’ve done a handful of winters, a few summers and a couple of round trips in between.

Job title: Winter Aerodrome Manager

Describe your role in two sentences: Responsible for decommissioning Wilkins Aerodrome at the end of last summer season and reinstating it to a serviceable level before next summer season. This round I’m working with a great team which makes everything easier but on the way through there’s a whole bunch of things I get to be a part of to keep me occupied.

What did you do before you joined the AAD? I’m a sheetmetal worker and welder by trade. Have spent some time driving different things around Australia like headers, sugar cane harvesters, cotton pickers, air seeders. I’ve spent some time underground mining, was a tour guide for a while and a few other bits and pieces in between. I have been working in Aviation Operations for a few years now and have been working in Aerodrome Operations the last couple of years, most recently at Gove Airport in the NT.

What is your favourite part of your job here at Casey? I’ve got a fairly diverse role so I get to do a bit of everything to keep the wheels turning around the place.

If you were not in aviation, what would be your dream job? I’ve still got no idea what I want to be when I grow up.

How does this season at Casey compare to your previous seasons down south? I find it best to enjoy each experience for what it is. Each season will be same same but different and every season is what you make it.

What do you like to do in your spare time? I make a point of getting out and about as often as I can. There’s plenty of great walks around the local area and whenever I can I try to get out on the sea ice with others when the weather lets us.

What song sums up your Casey experience so far? Hotel California - Eagles

Favourite piece of Australian Antarctic Division kit? Massif Jacket.

Do you have a favourite quote that you’d like to leave us with? “Whether you think you can, or think you can’t, you’re right.” Henry Ford

Something thing people may not know about you: I’m outcome focused- I get it done.

Five quads and riders on the ice with a sunset in the bacground and throughout the sky
Sunset Cruise
(Photo: Matty Ryan)
Three expeditioners walking across the ice and into the sun
Walking on water
(Photo: Matty Ryan)
A photo into the ice and its patterns with two boots and the bottom of the trousers shown
Sometimes you need to look where you're standing
(Photo: Matty Ryan)
A path through the new snow shown and the building of Casey on the left and right
The path less travelled
(Photo: Matty Ryan)