Treaty partners

Twelve countries were original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Of these, seven claim territory in Antarctica (claimants). The Treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961. Thirty-eight other countries have now become Parties to the Treaty by acceding, for a total of 50 Parties.

Consultative Parties are those Parties entitled to participate in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. These are the original 12 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, and those that demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by "conducting substantial research activity there".

Sixteen of the acceding countries have had their activities in Antarctica recognised according to this provision, and consequently there are now 28 Consultative Parties in all. The other 22 Non-Consultative Parties are invited to attend the Consultative Meetings but do not participate in the decision-making.

Country Consultative Party Non–Consultative Party Comments
flag Argentina 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag Australia 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag Chile 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag France 16 Sep 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag New Zealand 1 Nov 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag Norway 24 Aug 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag United Kingdom 31 May 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
flag Belgium 26 Jul 1960   Original Signatory
flag Japan 4 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
flag Russian Federation 2 Nov 1960   Succeeding state1
flag South Africa 21 Jun 1960   Original Signatory
flag United States of America 18 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
flag Brazil 12 Sep 1983 16 May 1975 Acceding state
flag Bulgaria 25 May 1998 11 Sep 1978 Acceding state
flag China 7 Oct 1985 8 Jun 1983 Acceding state
flag Ecuador 19 Nov 1990 15 Sep 1987 Acceding state
flag Finland 9 Oct 1989 15 May 1984 Acceding state
flag Germany 3 Mar 1981 5 Feb 1979 Acceding state2
flag India 12 Sep 1983 19 Aug 1983 Acceding state
flag Italy 5 Oct 1987 18 Mar 1981 Acceding state
flag Netherlands 19 Nov 1990 30 Mar 1967 Acceding state
flag Peru 9 Oct 1989 10 Apr 1981 Acceding state
flag Poland 29 Jul 1977 8 Jun 1961 Acceding state
flag Korea (ROK) 9 Oct 1989 28 Nov 1986 Acceding state
flag Spain 21 Sep 1988 31 Mar 1982 Acceding state
flag Sweden 21 Sep 1988 24 Apr 1984 Acceding state
flag Ukraine 27 May 2004 28 Oct 2002 Succeeding State3
flag Uruguay 7 Oct 1985 11 Jan 1980 Acceding state
flag Austria   25 Aug 1987 Acceding state
flag Canada   4 May 1988 Acceding state
flag Colombia   31 Jan 1989 Acceding state
flag Cuba   16 Aug 1984 Acceding state
flag Czech Republic   14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
flag Korea (DPRK)   21 Jan 1987 Acceding state
flag Denmark   20 May 1965 Acceding state
flag Estonia   17 May 2001 Acceding state
flag Greece   8 Jan 1987 Acceding state
flag Guatemala   31 Jul 1991 Acceding state
flag Hungary   27 Jan 1984 Acceding state
flag Papua New Guinea   16 Mar 1981 Acceding state
flag Romania   15 Sep 1971 Acceding state
flag Slovak Republic   14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
flag Switzerland   15 Nov 1990 Acceding state
flag Turkey   24 Jan 1996 Acceding state
flag Venezuela   24 Mar 1999 Acceding state
flag Belarus   27 Dec 2006 Acceding state 
flag Monaco   31 May 2008 Acceding state
Portuguese flag: two vertical bands of green and red with the national coat of arms centered on the dividing line Portugal   29 Jan 2010 Acceding state
Malaysian flag: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star.
Malaysia   31 Oct 2011 Acceding state
Flag of Pakistan: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field
Pakistan 1 Mar 2012 Acceding state

1 Following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which was an original signatory state, Russia assumed the rights and obligations of being a party to the Treaty.

2 The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was united with the Federal Republic of Germany on 2 October 1990. GDR acceded to the Treaty on 19 November 1974 and was recognised as a Consultative Party on 5 October 1987.

3 Ukraine succeeded to the Treaty following the dissolution of the USSR.

4 The Czech and Sloval Republics inherited Czechoslovakia’s obligations as a non-consultative party with effect from 1 January 1993, the date of their succession to the Treaty.

This page was last modified on 4 April 2012.