Twelve countries were original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Of these, seven claim territory in Antarctica (claimants). The Treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961. Thirty-eight other countries have now become Parties to the Treaty by acceding, for a total of 50 Parties.
Consultative Parties are those Parties entitled to participate in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. These are the original 12 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, and those that demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by "conducting substantial research activity there".
Sixteen of the acceding countries have had their activities in Antarctica recognised according to this provision, and consequently there are now 28 Consultative Parties in all. The other 22 Non-Consultative Parties are invited to attend the Consultative Meetings but do not participate in the decision-making.
|Country||Consultative Party||Non–Consultative Party||Comments|
|Argentina||23 Jun 1961||Claimant State
|Australia||23 Jun 1961||Claimant State
|Chile||23 Jun 1961||Claimant State
|France||16 Sep 1960||Claimant State
|New Zealand||1 Nov 1960||Claimant State
|Norway||24 Aug 1960||Claimant State
|United Kingdom||31 May 1960||Claimant State
|Belgium||26 Jul 1960||Original Signatory|
|Japan||4 Aug 1960||Original Signatory|
|Russian Federation||2 Nov 1960||Succeeding state1|
|South Africa||21 Jun 1960||Original Signatory|
|United States of America||18 Aug 1960||Original Signatory|
|Brazil||12 Sep 1983||16 May 1975||Acceding state|
|Bulgaria||25 May 1998||11 Sep 1978||Acceding state|
|China||7 Oct 1985||8 Jun 1983||Acceding state|
|Ecuador||19 Nov 1990||15 Sep 1987||Acceding state|
|Finland||9 Oct 1989||15 May 1984||Acceding state|
|Germany||3 Mar 1981||5 Feb 1979||Acceding state2|
|India||12 Sep 1983||19 Aug 1983||Acceding state|
|Italy||5 Oct 1987||18 Mar 1981||Acceding state|
|Netherlands||19 Nov 1990||30 Mar 1967||Acceding state|
|Peru||9 Oct 1989||10 Apr 1981||Acceding state|
|Poland||29 Jul 1977||8 Jun 1961||Acceding state|
|Korea (ROK)||9 Oct 1989||28 Nov 1986||Acceding state|
|Spain||21 Sep 1988||31 Mar 1982||Acceding state|
|Sweden||21 Sep 1988||24 Apr 1984||Acceding state|
|Ukraine||27 May 2004||28 Oct 2002||Succeeding State3|
|Uruguay||7 Oct 1985||11 Jan 1980||Acceding state|
|Austria||25 Aug 1987||Acceding state|
|Canada||4 May 1988||Acceding state|
|Colombia||31 Jan 1989||Acceding state|
|Cuba||16 Aug 1984||Acceding state|
|Czech Republic||14 Jun 1962||Succeeding state4|
|Korea (DPRK)||21 Jan 1987||Acceding state|
|Denmark||20 May 1965||Acceding state|
|Estonia||17 May 2001||Acceding state|
|Greece||8 Jan 1987||Acceding state|
|Guatemala||31 Jul 1991||Acceding state|
|Hungary||27 Jan 1984||Acceding state|
|Papua New Guinea||16 Mar 1981||Acceding state|
|Romania||15 Sep 1971||Acceding state|
|Slovak Republic||14 Jun 1962||Succeeding state4|
|Switzerland||15 Nov 1990||Acceding state|
|Turkey||24 Jan 1996||Acceding state|
|Venezuela||24 Mar 1999||Acceding state|
|Belarus||27 Dec 2006||Acceding state|
|Monaco||31 May 2008||Acceding state
|Portugal||29 Jan 2010||Acceding state|
|Malaysia||31 Oct 2011||Acceding state|
|Pakistan||1 Mar 2012||Acceding state|
1 Following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which was an original signatory state, Russia assumed the rights and obligations of being a party to the Treaty.
2 The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was united with the Federal Republic of Germany on 2 October 1990. GDR acceded to the Treaty on 19 November 1974 and was recognised as a Consultative Party on 5 October 1987.
3 Ukraine succeeded to the Treaty following the dissolution of the USSR.
4 The Czech and Sloval Republics inherited Czechoslovakia’s obligations as a non-consultative party with effect from 1 January 1993, the date of their succession to the Treaty.