Treaty partners

Twelve countries were original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Of these, seven claim territory in Antarctica (claimants). The Treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961. Since then, 40 other countries have acceded to the Treaty, for a total of 52 Parties.

Consultative Parties are those Parties entitled to participate in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. These are the original 12 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, and those that demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by "conducting substantial research activity there".

Seventeen of the acceding countries have had their activities in Antarctica recognised according to this provision, and consequently there are now 29 Consultative Parties in all. The other 23 Non-Consultative Parties are invited to attend the Consultative Meetings but do not participate in the decision-making.

The official list of Antarctic Treaty Parties can be found on the Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty website.

Country Flag Consultative Party Non–Consultative Party Comments
Argentina Flag of Argentina 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Australia Flag of Australia 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Chile Flag of Chile 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
France Flag of France 16 Sep 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
New Zealand Flag of New Zealand 1 Nov 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Norway Flag of Norway 24 Aug 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
United Kingdom Flag of United Kingdom 31 May 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Belgium Flag of Belgium 26 Jul 1960   Original Signatory
Japan Flag of Japan 4 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
Russian Federation Flag of Russian Federation 2 Nov 1960   Succeeding state1
South Africa Flag of South Africa 21 Jun 1960   Original Signatory
United States of America Flag of United States of America 18 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
Brazil Flag of Brazil 12 Sep 1983 16 May 1975 Acceding state
Bulgaria Flag of Bulgaria 25 May 1998 11 Sep 1978 Acceding state
China Flag of China 7 Oct 1985 8 Jun 1983 Acceding state
Ecuador Flag of Ecuador 19 Nov 1990 15 Sep 1987 Acceding state
Finland Flag of Finland 9 Oct 1989 15 May 1984 Acceding state
Germany Flag of Germany 3 Mar 1981 5 Feb 1979 Acceding state2
India Flag of India 12 Sep 1983 19 Aug 1983 Acceding state
Italy Flag of Italy 5 Oct 1987 18 Mar 1981 Acceding state
Netherlands Flag of Netherlands 19 Nov 1990 30 Mar 1967 Acceding state
Peru Flag of Peru 9 Oct 1989 10 Apr 1981 Acceding state
Poland Flag of Poland 29 Jul 1977 8 Jun 1961 Acceding state
Korea (ROK) Flag of Republic of Korea 9 Oct 1989 28 Nov 1986 Acceding state
Spain Flag of Spain 21 Sep 1988 31 Mar 1982 Acceding state
Sweden Flag of Sweden 21 Sep 1988 24 Apr 1984 Acceding state
Ukraine Flag of Ukraine 27 May 2004 28 Oct 2002 Succeeding State3
Uruguay Flag of Uruguay 7 Oct 1985 11 Jan 1980 Acceding state
Austria Flag of Austria   25 Aug 1987 Acceding state
Canada Flag of Canada   4 May 1988 Acceding state
Colombia Flag of Colombia   31 Jan 1989 Acceding state
Cuba Flag of Cuba   16 Aug 1984 Acceding state
Czech Republic Flag of Czech Republic 1 Apr 2014 14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
Korea (DPRK) Flag of Democratic People's Republic of Korea   21 Jan 1987 Acceding state
Denmark Flag of Denmark   20 May 1965 Acceding state
Estonia Flag of Estonia   17 May 2001 Acceding state
Greece Flag of Greece   8 Jan 1987 Acceding state
Guatemala Flag of Guatemala   31 Jul 1991 Acceding state
Hungary Flag of Hungary   27 Jan 1984 Acceding state
Papua New Guinea Flag of Papua New Guinea   16 Mar 1981 Acceding state
Romania Flag of Romania   15 Sep 1971 Acceding state
Slovak Republic Flag of Slovak Republic   14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
Switzerland Flag of Switzerland   15 Nov 1990 Acceding state
Turkey Flag of Turkey   24 Jan 1996 Acceding state
Venezuela Flag of Venezuela   24 Mar 1999 Acceding state
Belarus Flag of Belarus   27 Dec 2006 Acceding state
Monaco Flag of Monaco   31 May 2008 Acceding state
Portugal Flag of Portugal   29 Jan 2010 Acceding state
Malaysia Flag of Malaysia   31 Oct 2011 Acceding state
Pakistan Flag of Pakistan   1 Mar 2012 Acceding state
Portugal Flag of Portugal   29 Jan 2010 Acceding state
Kazakhstan Flag of Kazakhstan   27 Jan 2015 Acceding state
Mongolia Flag of Mongolia   23 Mar 2015 Acceding state
  1. Following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which was an original signatory state, Russia assumed the rights and obligations of being a party to the Treaty.
  2. The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was united with the Federal Republic of Germany on 2 October 1990. GDR acceded to the Treaty on 19 November 1974 and was recognised as a Consultative Party on 5 October 1987.
  3. Ukraine succeeded to the Treaty following the dissolution of the USSR.
  4. The Czech and Sloval Republics inherited Czechoslovakia's obligations as a non-consultative party with effect from 1 January 1993, the date of their succession to the Treaty.