Treaty partners

Twelve countries were original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Of these, seven claim territory in Antarctica (claimants). The Treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961. Thirty-eight other countries have now become Parties to the Treaty by acceding, for a total of 50 Parties.

Consultative Parties are those Parties entitled to participate in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. These are the original 12 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, and those that demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by "conducting substantial research activity there".

Sixteen of the acceding countries have had their activities in Antarctica recognised according to this provision, and consequently there are now 28 Consultative Parties in all. The other 22 Non-Consultative Parties are invited to attend the Consultative Meetings but do not participate in the decision-making.

Country Consultative Party Non–Consultative Party Comments
Flag of Argentina Argentina 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of Australia Australia 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of Chile Chile 23 Jun 1961   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of France France 16 Sep 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 1 Nov 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of Norway Norway 24 Aug 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 31 May 1960   Claimant State
Original Signatory
Flag of Belgium Belgium 26 Jul 1960   Original Signatory
Flag of Japan Japan 4 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
Flag of Russian Federation Russian Federation 2 Nov 1960   Succeeding state1
Flag of South Africa South Africa 21 Jun 1960   Original Signatory
Flag of United States of America United States of America 18 Aug 1960   Original Signatory
Flag of Brazil Brazil 12 Sep 1983 16 May 1975 Acceding state
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 25 May 1998 11 Sep 1978 Acceding state
Flag of China China 7 Oct 1985 8 Jun 1983 Acceding state
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador 19 Nov 1990 15 Sep 1987 Acceding state
Flag of Finland Finland 9 Oct 1989 15 May 1984 Acceding state
Flag of Germany Germany 3 Mar 1981 5 Feb 1979 Acceding state2
Flag of India India 12 Sep 1983 19 Aug 1983 Acceding state
Flag of Italy Italy 5 Oct 1987 18 Mar 1981 Acceding state
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 19 Nov 1990 30 Mar 1967 Acceding state
Flag of Peru Peru 9 Oct 1989 10 Apr 1981 Acceding state
Flag of Poland Poland 29 Jul 1977 8 Jun 1961 Acceding state
Flag of Republic of Korea Korea (ROK) 9 Oct 1989 28 Nov 1986 Acceding state
Flag of Spain Spain 21 Sep 1988 31 Mar 1982 Acceding state
Flag of Sweden Sweden 21 Sep 1988 24 Apr 1984 Acceding state
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 27 May 2004 28 Oct 2002 Succeeding State3
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay 7 Oct 1985 11 Jan 1980 Acceding state
Flag of Austria Austria   25 Aug 1987 Acceding state
Flag of Canada Canada   4 May 1988 Acceding state
Flag of Colombia Colombia   31 Jan 1989 Acceding state
Flag of Cuba Cuba   16 Aug 1984 Acceding state
Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic   14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
Flag of Democratic People's Republic of Korea Korea (DPRK)   21 Jan 1987 Acceding state
Flag of Denmark Denmark   20 May 1965 Acceding state
Flag of Estonia Estonia   17 May 2001 Acceding state
Flag of Greece Greece   8 Jan 1987 Acceding state
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala   31 Jul 1991 Acceding state
Flag of Hungary Hungary   27 Jan 1984 Acceding state
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea   16 Mar 1981 Acceding state
Flag of Romania Romania   15 Sep 1971 Acceding state
Flag of Slovak Republic Slovak Republic   14 Jun 1962 Succeeding state4
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland   15 Nov 1990 Acceding state
Flag of Turkey Turkey   24 Jan 1996 Acceding state
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela   24 Mar 1999 Acceding state
Flag of Belarus Belarus   27 Dec 2006 Acceding state
Flag of Monaco Monaco   31 May 2008 Acceding state
Flag of Portugal Portugal   29 Jan 2010 Acceding state
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia   31 Oct 2011 Acceding state
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan   1 Mar 2012 Acceding state
  1. Following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which was an original signatory state, Russia assumed the rights and obligations of being a party to the Treaty.
  2. The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was united with the Federal Republic of Germany on 2 October 1990. GDR acceded to the Treaty on 19 November 1974 and was recognised as a Consultative Party on 5 October 1987.
  3. Ukraine succeeded to the Treaty following the dissolution of the USSR.
  4. The Czech and Sloval Republics inherited Czechoslovakia's obligations as a non-consultative party with effect from 1 January 1993, the date of their succession to the Treaty.
This page was last modified on 4 April 2012.